4-H PET PALS
Doc Sanders gives a brief history of veterinary medicine.
Doc Sanders: Team Greyhound
FROM SHEEP TO SWEATERS
DOC SANDERS: PET OBESITY
خیلی از بچه ها در مورد گوسفند اطلاعات خواستند
و گفتند که اطلاعاتشون تو این زمینه کمه .
منم تصمیم گرفتم برای کمک به اونها این پست رو بزارم.
دانلود کنید چون خیلی با ارزشه.
Nominate today for the Farm Biosecurity Award!
For further information visit the Awards Australia website. Nominations close 10 July 2009.
The 2007 equine influenza (horse flu) outbreak in Australia was a timely reminder of why biosecurity is both beneficial and necessary. Regardless of whether you own a large or small property, you are responsible for keeping your animals, plants and crops free from pests and disease.
This page provides vital biosecurity information for small and large rural landholders, regardless of your farming interests. It provides a simple explanation of what biosecurity is and how to keep weeds, pests and disease off your property. There is also specific information available for where you live.
‘Biosecurity’ is protecting the economy, environment and people’s health from pests and disease. It includes trying to prevent new pests and diseases from arriving, and helping to control outbreaks when they do occur. While robust response arrangements are in place to combat outbreaks, preventing pest and disease incursions in the first place, remains a national priority.
Having good biosecurity measures in place is the key to avoiding pest and disease incursions on your property. Implementing biosecurity measures doesn't have to be difficult or expensive. Use the links below to access biosecurity information that is relevant to your farming interests.
Biosecurity in your state or territory
Links to animal and plant industry organisations
AusBIOSEC - Australia's biosecurity framework
Engaging in Biosecurity in Horticultural Regions project
To receive free biosecurity news and updates tick the 'On-farm biosecurity' box on the DAFF free subscription page.
Biosecurity and Small Rural Landholders in Peri-urban Australia
Bureau of Rural Sciences 2007
Biosecurity awareness and peri-urban landholders: a case study approach
Bureau of Rural Sciences 2005
Livestock and Birds
Plants and Cropping
These awareness materials can be mailed to you. Please send us an email with your name, postal address, and tell us what product you would like and quantities required.
سانن٬ توگن بورگ٬ نوبیان و آلپی از نژادمهای پر شیر بز در جهان هستند. این نژادها پستانهای بزرگ دارند و شیر فراوانی تولید می کنند . بز آنقره و بز کشمیر کم شیر هستند .
زیستگاه اصلی بز سانن درکوهستانهای سویس بوده است ٬ سپس این نژاد به سراسر جهان راه یافته است . موهای بز سانن کوتاه و معمولا" به رنگ سفید یکدست و گاهی خاکستری است . این بز شاخ ندارد و درشت اندام است . وزن آن ٥٠ تا ٨٠ کیلوگرم و بلندی قامت آن تا ٨٥ سانتیمتر است . دوره شیردهی آن ٢٥٠ تا ٣٠٥ روز است و در هر روز از ٢ تا ٥ لیتر شیر می دهد این نژاد را نیز به ایران آورده اند و از آن برای اصلاح نژاد بزهای ایرانی استفاده شده است .
.بز درشت اندامی است با شیر فراوان که منطقه اصلی زیست آن کوهستانهای سویس است . این بز در ٣٠٥ روز تا حدود ١٩٩٣ لیتر شیر تولید کرده است . ٥٠ تا ٨٠ کیلو گرم وزن دارند و بلندی قامت آن ٧٠ تا ٨٠ سانیمتر و رنگ آن قهوه ای روشن تا قهوه ای تیره با گوشها و دم سفید است
زیستگاه اصلی بز نوبیان در سودان بوده است ٬ سپس به نقاط مختلف جهان برده شده است . این بز اندامی درشت ٬ پاهایی بلند و گوشهایی بلند و آویخته دارد . رنگ آن خرمایی ٬ قهوه ای مایل به سفید ٬ زرد نخودی و یا سیاه مایل به خاکستری است و معممولا" برای تولید شیر و گوشت پرورش می یابد . بزهای نوبیان نسبت به نژادهای سویسی شیر کمتری دارند اما چربی شیرشان بیشتر از همه انواع بز است
زیستگاه اصلی نژاد آلپی یا نژاد آلپان فرانسوی منطقه های کوهستانی آلپ فرانسه است . این نژاد اندامی درشت دارد و به رنگهای سفید ٬ تیره و یا ابلق است . وزن آن به ٦٥ تا ٨٥ کیلوگرم می رسد و بلندی قامت آن نیز از ٧٢ تا ١٠٠ سانتیمتر است یک بز کوهی آلپی در ٣٠٥ روز در حدود ٢٠٨٤ لیتر شیر می دهد .
زیستگاه اصلی بز نژاد آنقره شمال شرقی فلات ایران و آسیای صغیر است ٬ و موی معروف موهر از این نژاد بدست می آید . این نژاد جثه نسبتا" کوچکی دارد ٬ رنگ آن سفید و نر و ماده آن دارای شاخ هستند . از هر بز آنقره بطور متوسط ٥/١ تا ٢ کیلوگرم و از بزهای بالغ و درشت اندام حتی تا ٥/٥ کیلوگرم موهر در سال بدست می آید ٬ اما میزان شیردهی آن کم است . بز نژاد کشمیر متعلق به دره کشمیر است و در تبت و مغولستان تا کوههای اورال نیز وجود دارد ٬ و از این مناطق به سایر نقاط جهان برده شده است .
از آنقره بزرگتر است و بدنی کشیده دارد . بدن این نژاد از کرک بسیار نرم و ظریف به رنگهای سفید ٬ زرد ٬ قهوه ای تیره ٬ سیاه و قهوه ای روشن پوشیده شده است . کرک بز کشمیر بسیار لطیف و گرانبها است و از آن پارچه های بسیار لطیفی یافته می شود . بزهای این نژاد پر گوشت هستند ٬ اما شیر آنها مانند نژاد آنقره اندک است . کرک سفید رنگ بز کشمیر از رنگهای دیگر پر بهاتر است .
The 4 goats and 2 sheep who make up the Wozny Project consists of the following characters: Curley Joe (an Angora goat) is the leader of the band. Curley plays brass instruments and special effects. He's known as our “Weather Goat”. He tells us what the weather will be like on a daily basis. He’s never been wrong yet! (Something to do with the curled horns we guess).
Sammie is a Sanan goat, the only female in the group, and came to us with an atitude problem. But being the “Lead Guitar Mamma”, we let her “Be”.
Bandit is a Nubian goat (the ones with floppy ears) and is the main keyboard player and woodwinds too. He’s especially fond of the shakuhachi (flute) and the sax. (HE will only play a “safe sax”) Bandit is featured on CD# 3 as the “Storyteller”. He’s the goat you’ll see playing “Live”.
Jacob, (as you might have guessed), is a Jacob sheep. He’s the drummer, percussionist and does special effects. Jacob sheep can have 4 or even 6 horns. This makes him the horniest member of the band. Bhaaaad!
Scotty, (you guessed it) is a Scottish Blackface sheep and does mostly rhythm guitar, some 2 lead guitar work, and some vocals. (Not words!)
Toggan, (here we go again), is a Toggenberg goat (the kind you might usually see with the goat-tee and the bell around his neck). He plays mostly Bass but fills in on occasion with guitar and strings. Toggen is the youngest goat.
Situated in the Canadian Rockies, Wild Goat Recordings was established in 2003 as a home based digital recording studio.Working togther with the Wozny Project, the group has released 6 CD’s and are presently working on 6 new releases.
Dziki Koziol ( mountain goat in Polish) is not in the band but is the band’s Guru, Manager / Producer and is featured on the back of the CD jewel cases. The band uses every instrument to create every type of music. Each CD has a different flavour. Some of the music features Rod J. on vocal. Wild Goat Recording studio welcomes enquiries for any custom recoding productions including movie soundtracks, weddings, presentations, special effects etc.
در این مطلب در ابتدا سعی شد نژاد های کلی گوسفند در
جهان دسته بندی و بررسی شود و سپس به وجود این گونه ها
در کشور خودمان پرداخته شود.
به طور کلی نژاد های گوسفند در 6 دسته کلی طبقه بندی می شوند
1- نژادهایی با پشم خیلی ظریف
2-نژادهایی با پشم نسبتا ظریف
3- نژادهای پشم دراز
4 - نژادهای پشم تلاقی یافته
5 -نژادهای پشم قالی
6- نژاد پوستی
٧-نژادهایی با پشم خیلی ظریف
Horns of a dilemma: A feral goat
The animals' fate has outraged residents near Studland, Dorset, where the trust was running a trial to see if the goats could eat gorse encroaching on the heathland.
Their grazing successfully kept the plants down but the animals were able to jump over a 6ft electric fence put up to stop them roaming.
During their repeated escapes, they caused damage to nearby gardens and a golf course.
The trust said its decision to destroy the herd of British native feral goats was based on 'animal welfare grounds' as no other suitable home was available.
One local, who asked not to be named, said: "It is absolutely disgusting, the National Trust is supposed to be a conservation group.
"They brought those poor animals on to the land and, because they didn't build adequate fencing, they shot them. The only damage I believe the goats caused when they escaped was biting bark off a couple of apple trees in a lady's back garden.
'That is certainly not a reason to kill them. Everyone I have spoken to can't believe the National Trust could do a thing like this.
'They were lovely animals, every time I saw them they were happily grazing away in their fenced- off area.
"Then one day they were gone, I believe they were rounded up and put into a van before being taken to a barn to be shot.
"It is just outrageous, it wasn't their fault they could escape."
Anita Singh, for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, said the culling was 'stupid'.
"Animals are often killed for the most foolish reasons and the slaughter of these goats tops the list," she said.
"Humane long-term plans to manage feral goats such as investing in good fencing and providing a suitable habitat to attract them away from humans are needed, not bloodshed."
The herd was put on the site on the Isle of Purbeck last October. David Hodd, countryside manager for the trust, said: "Sadly, we have to accept this grazing experiment has not worked as they repeatedly escaped their fencing.
"They proved impossible to pen within safe grazing areas.
"We looked at various locations to re-home the goats but nothing was suitable.
"All were too close to roads which could be dangerous if they were to escape again.
"We also couldn't find an available grazing area that would provide enough feed for the goats. It would have been irresponsible to allow them to roam wildly so we made the best decision we could on animal welfare grounds."
The trust spent three weeks rounding up 15 of the goats before placing them on the grassy slopes surrounding the ruins of nearby Corfe Castle. But when they escaped again, their time was up.
The hunt is now on for the last three which will also be shot if no one offers them a home.
This article can also be found at World Poultry Volume 22 number 7. To view the article online simply click on the link below.
Keywords: Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease, Coccidiosis, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Clostridium
Cattle Handling Systems: Practical tips on why some handling systems work better than others
Some cattle handling systems work like well-oiled machines, while others bog down with cattle that constantly balk and turn around.
Figure 1) A well designed round crowd pen takes advantage of the tendency of cattle to go back in the direction they came from.
Fixing crowded, poorly designed systems isn¹t impossible. In fact, there are usually three basic causes of problems in crowd pens and chutes:
Round crowd pens and curved single file chutes work better than straight ones, but they must be laid out correctly.
A curved chute works more efficiently than a straight one because it prevents cattle from seeing people and other activities at the end of the chute.
Figure 2) In the high efficiency round crowd pen system, cattle make a 180° turn as they move through the crowd pen.
A round crowd pen will work better than a straight crowd pen because, as cattle go around a 180° turn, they think they are going back to where they came from (see Figures 1 and 2). Round crowd pens should be laid out so cattle make a 180° turn as they move through the crowd pen.
The most common mistake is the straight-through layout shown in Figure 3. The advantage of a round crowd pen is lost when cattle move straight through it. When cattle go around the bend as shown in figures 1 and 2, it takes advantage of their natural behavior. Cattle want to go back to where they came from.
Figure 3) The straight through round crowd pen and dead end chute is poorly designed.
Quiet handling of cattle and pigs is impossible if animals slip or fall during handling. Animals tend to panic if they slip even a little bit. If cattle are constantly agitated while standing in a race, stun box or restraining chute, this is often due to slipping. On ramps and in restraining chutes the cleats must be spaced to fit the stride width of the animal. This prevents the hoof from slipping between the cleats. Cleats must be spaced so that an animal's hoof can fit comfortably between them without slipping. Stairsteps work really well on concrete ramps. For cattle the steps should be 10 cm (3 in) high and 30 cm (12 in) to 45 cm (18 in) long. Each step should have grooves that are 2.5 cm (1 in) deep. The angle of a non-adjustable loading ramp should be 20 degrees or less. If at all possible, ramps should be avoided in pig handling facilities. Pigs are easier to handle on a level surface. Cattle and sheep will go up and down ramps more easily than pigs. Never build the crowd pen which leads up to a single file race (chute) on a ramp. The animals will tend to pile up on the back gate. If a system has to contain a ramp, it will work best if the crowd pen is level and the single file chute is a ramp.
The flooring described in this article is designed for use in stockyards, veterinary facilities, truck loading pens, ranch corrals, feelot cattle handling systems and slaughter plants. It is designed to provide non slip flooring during animal handling. Use high quality concrete when making floors for livestock. Poor concrete will wear out. It is also important to cure concrete properly to get a hard surface. Do not pour too large an area at a time. It will set before it can be grooved.
Figure 1. An old slick concrete floor has been re-grooved with a concrete grooving machine. Grooving machines can be rented from a concrete supply company. This floor is suitable for handling pigs and dairy cows. Another good surface is to print the pattern of expanded metal mesh into the wet concrete. Make a stamp out of raised expanded metal mesh with an opening width of 2.5 cm (1 in). Rough broom finishes are not recommended because they wear out too quickly.
Figure 2. Diamond pattern floor that works well for pigs. The grooves are in a diamond pattern. The diamonds are 10 cm (4 in) by 13 cm (5 in). The grooves are 1 cm (0.5 in) wide by 1 cm (0.5 in) deep.
Figure 3. Deep square pattern for handling facilities for beef cattle. The squares are 20 cm (8 in) by 20 cm (8 in). The V shaped grooves are a minimum of 2.5 cm (1 in) deep and 2.5 cm (1 in) wide. The grooves can be made by pressing angle iron into the wet concrete or making a stamp. Pour a practice slab first to learn how to do it. The pattern can not be properly made if the concrete starts to set. Do not use this pattern in dairies. It will be too rough for cattle to walk on every day. It is intended for use in handling facilities such as truck loading ramps, feedlot handling facilities, stockyards, slaughter plants, and other places where cattle occasionally walk. These grooves can also be made in a diamond pattern that will make washing easier. Orient the points of the diamonds towards the drain.
Figure 4. This photo shows a non-slip metal floor grating for use in high traffic areas for beef cattle. It is recommended for cattle scales, stunning boxes, crowd pens and the area in front of a squeeze chute. To prevent damage to the hooves, the bars must be welded so that the grid lies flat. Do not cross the bars on top of each other. Use heavy steel rods. The minimum diameter of the rods is 2.5 cm (1 in). The size of the squares is 30 cm (12 in) by 30 cm (12 in). People often ask why such heavy rods should be used. Thinner rods tend to bend and pull away from the floor. A grating built from heavy rods will lie flat on the floor.
Other methods that can be used to reduce slipping are applying sand on the floor. In the U.S., mats made from woven tire treads can be purchased for use in high traffic areas. Feedlots will often install these mats in front of the squeeze chute. One advantage of these mats is they reduce the chance of hoof damage. The disadvantage of the mats is difficulty with cleaning.